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Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of

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Learning Objectives

  1. Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of Quizlet
  2. Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of What
  3. Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of *
  4. Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of
Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of
Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of
  • Predict the general properties of elements based on their location within the periodic table
  • Identify metals, nonmetals, and metalloids by their properties and/or location on the periodic table

Example 1: Naming Groups of Elements

Atoms of each of the following elements are essential for life. Give the group name for the following elements:

  1. calcium
  2. sodium
  3. sulfur
  1. alkaline earth metal
  2. alkali metal
  3. chalcogen

Check Your Learning

Give the group name for each of the following elements:

  1. selenium
  2. barium
  3. lithium
  1. chalcogen
  2. alkaline earth metal
  3. alkali metal

Key Concepts and Summary

The discovery of the periodic recurrence of similar properties among the elements led to the formulation of the periodic table, in which the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number in rows known as periods and columns known as groups. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties. Elements can be classified as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals, or as a main-group elements, transition metals, and inner transition metals. Groups are numbered 1–18 from left to right. The elements in group 1 are known as the alkali metals; those in group 2 are the alkaline earth metals; those in 15 are the pnictogens; those in 16 are the chalcogens; those in 17 are the halogens; and those in 18 are the noble gases.

Exercises

Metal or Nonmetal?

  1. Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a main-group (representative) element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:
  2. uranium
  3. bromine
  4. strontium
  5. neon
  6. gold
  7. americium
  8. rhodium
  9. sulfur
  10. carbon
  11. potassium
  12. Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a main-group (representative) element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:
  13. cobalt
  14. europium
  15. iodine
  16. indium
  17. lithium
  18. oxygen
  19. cadmium
  20. terbium
  21. rhenium

Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of Quizlet

Show Answer

Identifying Elements

  1. Using the periodic table, identify the lightest member of each of the following groups:
  2. noble gases
  3. alkaline earth metals
  4. alkali metals
  5. chalcogens
  6. Using the periodic table, identify the heaviest member of each of the following groups:
  7. alkali metals
  8. chalcogens
  9. noble gases
  10. alkaline earth metals
  11. Use the periodic table to give the name and symbol for each of the following elements:
  12. the noble gas in the same period as germanium
  13. the alkaline earth metal in the same period as selenium
  14. the halogen in the same period as lithium
  15. the chalcogen in the same period as cadmium
  16. Use the periodic table to give the name and symbol for each of the following elements:
  17. the halogen in the same period as the alkali metal with 11 protons
  18. the alkaline earth metal in the same period with the neutral noble gas with 18 electrons
  19. the noble gas in the same row as an isotope with 30 neutrons and 25 protons
  20. the noble gas in the same period as gold
  21. Write a symbol for each of the following neutral isotopes. Include the atomic number and mass number for each.
  22. the alkali metal with 11 protons and a mass number of 23
  23. the noble gas element with and 75 neutrons in its nucleus and 54 electrons in the neutral atom
  24. the isotope with 33 protons and 40 neutrons in its nucleus
  25. the alkaline earth metal with 88 electrons and 138 neutrons
  26. Write a symbol for each of the following neutral isotopes. Include the atomic number and mass number for each.
  27. the chalcogen with a mass number of 125
  28. the halogen whose longest-lived isotope is radioactive
  29. the noble gas, used in lighting, with 10 electrons and 10 neutrons
  30. the lightest alkali metal with three neutrons

Glossary

actinide: inner transition metal in the bottom of the bottom two rows of the periodic table

3.2 Ions

Learning Objectives

  1. Define the two types of ions.
  2. Use Lewis diagrams to illustrate ion formation.

Note

The names for positive and negative ions are pronounced CAT-eye-ons and ANN-eye-ons, respectively.

Electron Transfer

We can use electron configurations to illustrate the electron transfer process between sodium atoms and chlorine atoms. Recall the electron configuration of sodium from Chapter 2 ‘Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table’:

Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of What

Only one more electron is needed to achieve an octet in chlorine’s valence shell. (In table salt, this electron comes from the sodium atom.) The electron configuration of the new species that results is as follows:

Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of *

Figure 3.2 The Formation of a Chlorine Ion

Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of

Lewis Diagrams

Chemists use simple diagrams to show an atom’s valence electrons and how they transfer. These diagrams have two advantages over the electron shell diagrams introduced in Chapter 2 ‘Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table’. First, they show only valence electrons. Second, instead of having a circle around the chemical symbol to represent the electron shell, they have up to eight dots around the symbol; each dot represents a valence electron. These dots are arranged to the right and left and above and below the symbol, with no more than two dots on a side. For example, the representation for sodium is as follows:

Note

It does not matter what sides the dots are placed on in Lewis diagrams as long as each side has a maximum of two dots.

Example 2

Starting with lithium and bromine atoms, use Lewis diagrams to show the formation of the ionic compound LiBr.

Elements

Skill-Building Exercise

  1. Starting with magnesium and oxygen atoms, use Lewis diagrams to show the formation of the ionic compound MgO.

Concept Review Exercises

  1. Use Lewis diagrams to illustrate the formation of an ionic compound from a potassium atom and an iodine atom.
  2. When the following atoms become ions, what charges do they acquire?
  3. Li
  4. S
  5. Ca
  6. F
Atoms of elements that are in the same group have the same number of quizlet
Atoms of elements that are in the same group have the same number of quizlet

Answers

  1. Cations have positive charges, and anions have negative charges.
  2. 1+
  3. 2−
  4. 2+
  5. 1−

Key Takeaways

  • Ions can be positively charged or negatively charged.
  • A Lewis diagram is used to show how electrons are transferred to make ions and ionic compounds.
Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of
Atoms Of Elements That Are In The Same Group Have The Same Number Of

Exercises

  1. Identify each as a cation, an anion, or neither.
  2. H+
  3. Cl−
  4. O2
  5. Ba2+
  6. CH4
  7. CS2
  8. Identify each as a cation, an anion, or neither.
  9. NH3
  10. Br−
  11. H−
  12. Hg2+
  13. CCl4
  14. SO3
  15. Write the electron configuration for each ion.
  16. Li+
  17. Mg2+
  18. F−
  19. S2−
  20. Write the electron configuration for each ion.
  21. Na+
  22. Be2+
  23. Cl−
  24. O2−
  25. Draw Lewis diagrams for the ions listed in Exercise 3. Also include Lewis diagrams for the respective neutral atoms as a comparison.
  26. Draw Lewis diagrams for the ions listed in Exercise 4. Also include Lewis diagrams for the respective neutral atoms as a comparison.
  27. Using Lewis diagrams, show the electron transfer for the formation of LiF.
  28. Using Lewis diagrams, show the electron transfer for the formation of MgO.
  29. Using Lewis diagrams, show the electron transfer for the formation of Li2O.
  30. Using Lewis diagrams, show the electron transfer for the formation of CaF2.
  31. What characteristic charge do atoms in the first column of the periodic table have when they become ions?
  32. What characteristic charge do atoms in the second column of the periodic table have when they become ions?
  33. What characteristic charge do atoms in the third-to-last column of the periodic table have when they become ions?
  34. What characteristic charge do atoms in the next-to-last column of the periodic table have when they become ions?

Answers

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